Associations between device-measured physical activity and glycemic control and variability indices under free-living condition.
- Deep Digital Phenotyping Research Unit
- Physical Activity, Sport and Health
BACKGROUND: Disturbances of glycemic control and large glycemic variability have been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population as well as complications in people with diabetes. Long-term health benefits of physical activity are well documented but less is known about the timing of potential short-term effects on glycemic control and variability in free-living conditions. METHODS: We analyzed data from 85 participants without diabetes from the Food & You digital cohort. During a 2-week follow-up, device-based daily step count was studied in relation to glycemic control and variability indices using generalized estimating equations. Glycemic indices, evaluated using flash glucose monitoring devices (FreeStyle Libre), included minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation of daily glucose values, the glucose management indicator, and the approximate area under the sensor glucose curve. RESULTS: We observed that every 1000 steps/day increase in daily step count was associated with a 0.3588 mg/dL (95% CI -0.6931,-0.0245), a 0.0917 mg/dL (95% CI -0.1793,-0.0042), and a 0.0022% (95% CI -0.0043,-0.0001) decrease in the maximum glucose values, mean glucose, and in the glucose management indicator of the following day, respectively. We did not find any association between daily step count and glycemic indices from the same day. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing physical activity level was linked to blunted glycemic excursions during the next day. Because health-related benefits of physical activity can be long to observe, such short-term physiological benefits could serve as personalized feedback to motivate individuals to engage in healthy behaviors.