Graft materials provide greater static strength to medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy than when no graft is included.
- Sports Medicine Research Laboratory
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the stability of medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) with and without different graft materials. Good clinical and radiological outcomes have been demonstrated when either using or not using graft materials during MOWHTO. Variations in the biomechanical properties of different graft types, regarding the stability they provide a MOWHTO, have not been previously investigated. METHODS: A 10 mm biplanar MOWHTO was performed on 15 artificial sawbone tibiae, which were fixed using the Activmotion 2 plate. Five bones had OSferion60 wedges (synthetic group), five had allograft bone wedges (allograft group), and five had no wedges (control group) inserted into the osteotomy gap. Static compression was applied axially to each specimen until failure of the osteotomy. Ultimate load, horizontal and vertical displacements were measured and used to calculate construct stiffness and valgus malrotation of the tibial head. RESULTS: The synthetic group failed at 6.3 kN, followed by the allograft group (6 kN), and the control group (4.5 kN). The most valgus malrotation of the tibial head was observed in the allograft group (2.6 degrees ). The synthetic group showed the highest stiffness at the medial side of the tibial head (9.54 kN.mm(- 1)), but the lowest stiffness at the lateral side (1.59 kN.mm(-1)). The allograft group showed high stiffness on the medial side of the tibial head (7.54 kN.mm(- 1)) as well as the highest stiffness on the lateral side (2.18 kN.mm(- 1)). CONCLUSIONS: The use of graft materials in MOWHTO results in superior material properties compared to the use of no graft. The static strength of MOWHTO is highest when synthetic grafts are inserted into the osteotomy gap. Allograft wedges provide higher mechanical strength to a MOWHTO than when no graft used. In comparison to the synthetic grafts, allograft wedges result in the stiffness of the osteotomy being more similar at the medial and lateral cortices.