Molecular and extract-based diagnostics in meat allergy. In Molecular allergy diagnostics: Innovation for a better patient management. (Book Chapter)
- Molecular and Translational Allergology
Allergy to meat has come into the focus of research during the last years. This chapter introduces the different types of meat allergy such as pork-cat and bird-egg syndrome, genuine poultry meat allergy, and type I reactions to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) in red meat allergy. pork-cat and bird-egg syndrome are triggered by sensitization to aeroallergens such as animal dander and bird feathers containing serum albumins, which are heat-sensitive allergens. In contrast, genuine poultry meat allergy is a consequence of sensitization to heat-resistant meat allergens, most likely via the intestinal mucosa. The α-Gal syndrome is characterized by the presence of IgE antibodies to α-Gal, a delayed onset of symptoms, and a possible acceleration or aggravation of symptoms by cofactors. Diagnosis using whole extracts cannot discriminate between these different types of allergy; however, molecular allergen diagnostic tools are available that allow an accurate diagnosis. Clinical practice and recommendations for the patients regarding allergen avoidance and dietary restriction are discussed.